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Collection Development And Management PolicyPurpose
Role of the library
Relationship to other community libraries
Collection development objectives
Collection maintenance objectives
Periodic review and update
Selection responsibility and criteria
Collection levels - Scope of collections
Definition of selection levels
Subject fields collected
Other types of materials
Archival and special collections
New Author/Local Author/Artist
The purpose of this document is to help the public and staff understand the collection development and management responsibilities of the library director and staff. Collection development and management includes: selection of materials for acquisition; access to electronic resources, both current and retrospective; the organization, storage, maintenance, preservation and replacement of the collection; and the deselection of obsolete, dated, worn, and superseded materials. This document has been approved by the Library Board and City of Flagstaff administrations.Up to top of page
The mission of the City of Flagstaff is to enhance the quality of life of its citizens while supporting the values of the community. The Flagstaff City-Coconino County Public Library supports this mission by providing services, materials, and electronic access to information that will meet the diverse needs of adult and youth residents of the city and county. Individual development, culture, enrichment, recreation, literacy, life-long learning, and local government information, are among the areas collected. The library also serves as a community center for the dissemination of ideas, and is dedicated to freedom of access for all within established library policies and guidelines of conduct and behavior.Up to top of page
ROLE OF THE LIBRARY
Libraries are keepers of and gateways to knowledge. Within that framework, collection development and management of materials by professional staff includes: selection of materials and electronic resources, both current and retrospective, as well as the organization, storage, maintenance, preservation and replacement of the collection; and the deselection of obsolete, dated, worn and superseded materials. The role of library staff is to assist and instruct the public in the retrieval of print, microform, and electronic resources, and to develop and adapt new electronic delivery systems within existing City of Flagstaff staffing and budget constraints.
While the library strives to make available materials in support of student research needs, the library does not support the specific curricula of local educational institutions.
Library staff, while professional, are not qualified to and may not interpret medical or legal information to the public.
When appropriate and cost effective, the library adds new proven formats, integrating the old with the new, ultimately eliminating the obsolete.
Intellectual freedom is one of the fundamental principles of a democratic society and as such will be protected by the Library and staff. The Library supports individual access rights of adults and youth, to books and other library resources and services, as expressed in the American Library Association's Library Bill of Rights,* The Freedom to Read,* the Freedom to View,* and the Policy on Confidentiality of Library Records,* as well as the Intellectual Freedom Manual for Arizona Libraries.* The library also supports American Library Association policies in regard to an interpretation of the Library Bill of Rights, as related to the Intellectual Freedom Statement, Challenged Materials.* (* See: Appendices)
No member of the community will be denied access to materials or information based on age, race, background, or personal views, with the exception of R-rated videos and DVDs to minors. Because parents and guardians are responsible for their child's use of materials, they are encouraged to assist their minors in choosing appropriate materials and information. Patrons are encouraged to use all levels of the collection appropriate to their needs. In addition, members of the community will not be denied access to any materials or information deemed objectionable by another member or group in the community. A formal review process may be pursued by anyone seeking to challenge the ownership of any materials held by the library. (See Appendices)
Within the context of public access for all, the Library makes every effort to comply with national, state, and local information access laws.
The Library will not disclose any information regarding patron records without a court order or other criteria, as required by Arizona State Law, ARS 41-1354. This is a legal right of privacy issue.
The Library makes every effort to comply with national copyright laws (Title 17, U.S. code) and guidelines designed for the protection of authors and publishers. Notices about the use of copyrighted materials are placed on or near copy machines and Internet terminals to remind users of legal restrictions.
The Library also makes every effort to comply with national and state laws and guidelines in relation to use of the Internet in a public place. Electronic resources may only be used for legal purposes; per federal order (FCC 03-188), filtering software is applied to all PC's. Public display of obscene materials on the Internet and gambling on the Internet are prohibited. (Children's Internet Protection Act, Pub. L. 106-554, ARS section 13-3501-3512, ARS section 34-501 and 502, ARS section 13-3304, FCC 6-01-001-0012 See: Appendices). Notices regarding the law and library policy are posted near Internet terminals.Up to top of page
As libraries cannot afford to purchase or house all materials, the Flagstaff Public Library is a member of the OCLC national network of libraries that lend and borrow materials from each other to better serve patron needs. Strict adherence to ILL rules is necessary to assure our continued ability to participate in this national program. Materials may be loaned or borrowed on a selective basis. (See policy)Up to top of page
RELATIONSHIP TO OTHER COMMUNITY LIBRARIES
The Public Library seeks to foster cooperative relationships with other libraries in the Flagstaff area, such as: NAU Cline Library, Coconino Community College Library, the Family History Center for Genealogy, the Pioneer Museum, the Museum of Northern Arizona, the County Law Library, and Lowell Observatory. These institutions have libraries with collections and services that compliment those of the Public Library. Duplication of effort and materials among these institutions will be avoided whenever possible.Up to top of page
The Public Library serves the City of Flagstaff and Coconino County, which have a combined population of approximately 116,000 people as of 2000. Coconino County, with 18,608 square miles, is the second largest county in the United States, but one of the most sparsely populated. Approximately 46% of the population is under the age of 25, 49% is between the ages 26 and 65, with the remaining over the age of 65. The racial population composition in 1990 was 64% white, 29% Native American, 7% other. 10% of the population is of Hispanic Heritage. The major sources of employment are tourism, government, and education.
Northern Arizona University is a major state university in Arizona and the southwest, with an enrollment of approximately 14,000 students in Flagstaff.
Coconino Community College is a county institution based in Flagstaff with an enrollment of approximately 3,000 students in Flagstaff.
Flagstaff Unified School District consists of three high schools, two middle schools, and twelve elementary schools. In addition there are several private and charter schools, as well as approximately twelve preschools and Head Start centers.Up to top of page
The Public Library consists of the main library, a branch library, a PALSmobile (Preschoolers Acquiring Literacy Skills), a County bookmobile, the Coconino County Correctional Facility Library, and also Tuba City and Forest Lakes Public Libraries. There are independent county 'affiliate' libraries in the communities of Fredonia, Page, Grand Canyon, Williams, Sedona, and Havasupai.
The local collection consists of approximately 212,000 items for adults and youth, including: books, reference materials, audio books, videos, DVDs, CDs, magazines, newspapers, microforms, and electronic information which includes Internet access.Up to top of page
COLLECTION DEVELOPMENT OBJECTIVES of the library include:
COLLECTION MAINTENANCE OBJECTIVES
Collection maintenance entails making decisions about the purchase of new materials and particular items that need to be replaced, added, deselected, or reassigned. This includes the addition of popular materials into subject areas where demand is high. Collections should allow for better and quicker accuracy in retrieval of current materials either in print or electronic formats.Up to top of page
De-selection is one of the best tools available for improving the quality of library collections. Materials should be deselected from the collection when they no longer meet the original criteria for adding them to the collection. Examples of this include materials that are dated or have inaccurate information, superseded editions, duplicates that are no longer needed, classic titles that need to be replaced, items that are damaged or seriously worn. Such items complicate space constrictions and storage costs, prevent the speed of access to accurate and current information, or remain on the shelves unused.
De-selection and collection maintenance practices will be used as suggested by current library guidelines, using the judgement of professional staff to adapt them to local needs. Deselected materials will be sold through The Friends of the Library book sale, saved as backup copies, offered to other libraries if deemed appropriate, or recycled.Up to top of page
PERIODIC REVIEW AND UPDATE
The Collection Development and Management Policy will be reviewed yearly for changes and updated on an as needs basis.Up to top of page
SELECTION RESPONSIBILITY AND CRITERIA
The responsibility for administering the Library Collection Development and Maintenance Policy lies with the director. The director and staff are responsible for selecting materials for purchase, with high priority given to suggestions from the public. Most items are chosen based upon professional reviewing sources such as Booklist, Publisher's Weekly, and School Library Journal, as well as popular book lists and awards. When choices exist, selection is based on readability, clarity, appeal, and cost. Each title must be considered for its value, its format, and the audience for which it is intended. No single criterion is applicable to all purchase and access decisions. Some resources may be judged primarily for their artistic merit, scholarship, or value to humanity; others are chosen to satisfy the informational, recreational, or educational interests of the community, or for price affordability. Available budgets also limit purchases.
Selection criteria are essentially the same for all collections. The youth collection focuses on materials appropriate for infants through sixteen year-olds, and is selected in response to the needs and interests of young people, recognizing their diverse tastes, backgrounds, abilities, and potentials, as well as reading levels.Up to top of page
COLLECTION LEVELS - SCOPE OF COLLECTIONS
The collection as a whole is designed for the general population in the community, with consideration given to local ethnic populations and those with special needs. Both adult and youth collections are maintained at essentially the same levels. Reference materials may be purchased on a less frequent basis using a rotating schedule of standing orders. Books and media are purchased on a monthly basis for circulating materials. The acquisitions budget is divided among various categories based upon usage patterns and demand.Up to top of page
DEFINITION OF SELECTION LEVELSMinimal Level
OTHER TYPES OF MATERIALS
As new formats become available, they will be evaluated for inclusion in the collection.
The reference collection supports general research needs of the community in a variety of formats, including print, microform, and electronic resources. Many titles are intended for use as backup information when the public borrows circulating materials. Budget and space constraints prohibit the purchase of all materials on a yearly basis. These items do not circulate, but are available to the public when the Library is open. This collection includes several independent sub-collections:General Reference works in Adult and Youth Services
ARCHIVAL AND SPECIAL COLLECTIONS
At this time the library is not actively collecting materials to place in this collection. The Library has never been designated as the official City of Flagstaff Archive, but it has a collection of City of Flagstaff records dating back to the late 1800's. These records are not comprehensive but serve as a sampling of primary documents from various city departments. There is an inventory of materials in outline format. The materials are available by appointment to researchers for in-house use. Other materials include Library records and history, archival copies of oral history projects, maps, plans, and other items that need to be kept in a controlled climate. As time permits, these materials will be cataloged and included in the Library OPAC. Selected materials currently in the public non-circulating Arizona collection may be moved into this climate controlled area because of their age, condition, rarity, and value.Up to top of page
Subject fields and formats that are excluded for purchase are: those more appropriately provided by other libraries in the community.Items excluded are:
DONATIONSDonations are welcomed for the following materials:
Donations become the property of the Library and may be accepted, rejected, or given to the Friends of the Library for book sale purposes. (See Appendices for Policy)Up to top of page
NEW AUTHOR/LOCAL AUTHOR/ARTIST
To have your book, CD or DVD considered for the Library collection, please send a cover letter, a fact sheet with standard bibliographic information (including ISBN, cost, publisher, etc.), copies of reviews by standard review media (professional journals or newspapers), and the item to:
Appendices to the Collection Development PolicyLibrary Bill of Rights
The Freedom to Read statement
The Freedom to View statement
52. Services and responsibilities of libraries : 52.4 Confidentiality of Library Records
Arizona Revised Statutes 5/02
City of Flagstaff Code 5/02 : Division 6-01-001 General offenses : Section 6-01-001-0012 Gambling
Library Bill of Rights
The American Library Association affirms that all libraries are forums for information and ideas, and that the following basic policies should guide their services.
I. Books and other library resources should be provided for the interest, information, and enlightenment of all people of the community the library serves. Materials should not be excluded because of the origin, background, or views of those contributing to their creation.
II. Libraries should provide materials and information presenting all points of view on current and historical issues. Materials should not be proscribed or removed because of partisan or doctrinal disapproval.
III. Libraries should challenge censorship in the fulfillment of their responsibility to provide information and enlightenment.
IV. Libraries should cooperate with all persons and groups concerned with resisting abridgment of free expression and free access to ideas.
V. A person's right to use a library should not be denied or abridged because of origin, age, background, or views.
VI. Libraries which make exhibit spaces and meeting rooms available to the public they serve should make such facilities available on an equitable basis, regardless of the beliefs or affiliations of individuals or groups requesting their use.
Adopted June 18, 1948.
The Freedom to Read
Most attempts at suppression rest on a denial of the fundamental premise of democracy: that the ordinary citizen, by exercising critical judgment, will accept the good and reject the bad. The censors, public and private, assume that they should determine what is good and what is bad for their fellow citizens.
We trust Americans to recognize propaganda and misinformation, and to make their own decisions about what they read and believe. We do not believe they need the help of censors to assist them in this task. We do not believe they are prepared to sacrifice their heritage of a free press in order to be "protected" against what others think may be bad for them. We believe they still favor free enterprise in ideas and expression. These efforts at suppression are related to a larger pattern of pressures being brought against education, the press, art and images, films, broadcast media, and the Internet. The problem is not only one of actual censorship. The shadow of fear cast by these pressures leads, we suspect, to an even larger voluntary curtailment of expression by those who seek to avoid controversy.
Such pressure toward conformity is perhaps natural to a time of accelerated change. And yet suppression is never more dangerous than in such a time of social tension. Freedom has given the United States the elasticity to endure strain. Freedom keeps open the path of novel and creative solutions, and enables change to come by choice. Every silencing of a heresy, every enforcement of an orthodoxy, diminishes the toughness and resilience of our society and leaves it the less able to deal with controversy and difference.
Now as always in our history, reading is among our greatest freedoms. The freedom to read and write is almost the only means for making generally available ideas or manners of expression that can initially command only a small audience. The written word is the natural medium for the new idea and the untried voice from which come the original contributions to social growth. It is essential to the extended discussion that serious thought requires, and to the accumulation of knowledge and ideas into organized collections.
We believe that free communication is essential to the preservation of a free society and a creative culture. We believe that these pressures toward conformity present the danger of limiting the range and variety of inquiry and expression on which our democracy and our culture depend. We believe that every American community must jealously guard the freedom to publish and to circulate, in order to preserve its own freedom to read. We believe that publishers and librarians have a profound responsibility to give validity to that freedom to read by making it possible for the readers to choose freely from a variety of offerings. The freedom to read is guaranteed by the Constitution. Those with faith in free people will stand firm on these constitutional guarantees of essential rights and will exercise the responsibilities that accompany these rights.
We therefore affirm these propositions:1. It is in the public interest for publishers and librarians to make available the widest diversity of views and expressions, including those that are unorthodox or unpopular with the majority. Creative thought is by definition new, and what is new is different. The bearer of every new thought is a rebel until that idea is refined and tested. Totalitarian systems attempt to maintain themselves in power by the ruthless suppression of any concept that challenges the established orthodoxy. The power of a democratic system to adapt to change is vastly strengthened by the freedom of its citizens to choose widely from among conflicting opinions offered freely to them. To stifle every nonconformist idea at birth would mark the end of the democratic process. Furthermore, only through the constant activity of weighing and selecting can the democratic mind attain the strength demanded by times like these. We need to know not only what we believe but why we believe it.
2. Publishers, librarians, and booksellers do not need to endorse every idea or presentation they make available. It would conflict with the public interest for them to establish their own political, moral, or aesthetic views as a standard for determining what should be published or circulated. Publishers and librarians serve the educational process by helping to make available knowledge and ideas required for the growth of the mind and the increase of learning. They do not foster education by imposing as mentors the patterns of their own thought. The people should have the freedom to read and consider a broader range of ideas than those that may be held by any single librarian or publisher or government or church. It is wrong that what one can read should be confined to what another thinks proper.
3. It is contrary to the public interest for publishers or librarians to bar access to writings on the basis of the personal history or political affiliations of the author. No art or literature can flourish if it is to be measured by the political views or private lives of its creators. No society of free people can flourish that draws up lists of writers to whom it will not listen, whatever they may have to say.
4. There is no place in our society for efforts to coerce the taste of others, to confine adults to the reading matter deemed suitable for adolescents, or to inhibit the efforts of writers to achieve artistic expression. To some, much of modern expression is shocking. But is not much of life itself shocking? We cut off literature at the source if we prevent writers from dealing with the stuff of life. Parents and teachers have a responsibility to prepare the young to meet the diversity of experiences in life to which they will be exposed, as they have a responsibility to help them learn to think critically for themselves. These are affirmative responsibilities, not to be discharged simply by preventing them from reading works for which they are not yet prepared. In these matters values differ, and values cannot be legislated; nor can machinery be devised that will suit the demands of one group without limiting the freedom of others.
5. It is not in the public interest to force a reader to accept with any expression the prejudgment of a label characterizing it or its author as subversive or dangerous. The ideal of labeling presupposes the existence of individuals or groups with wisdom to determine by authority what is good or bad for the citizen. It presupposes that individuals must be directed in making up their minds about the ideas they examine. But Americans do not need others to do their thinking for them.
6. It is the responsibility of publishers and librarians, as guardians of the people's freedom to read, to contest encroachments upon that freedom by individuals or groups seeking to impose their own standards or tastes upon the community at large. It is inevitable in the give and take of the democratic process that the political, the moral, or the aesthetic concepts of an individual or group will occasionally collide with those of another individual or group. In a free society individuals are free to determine for themselves what they wish to read, and each group is free to determine what it will recommend to its freely associated members. But no group has the right to take the law into its own hands, and to impose its own concept of politics or morality upon other members of a democratic society. Freedom is no freedom if it is accorded only to the accepted and the inoffensive.
7. It is the responsibility of publishers and librarians to give full meaning to the freedom to read by providing books that enrich the quality and diversity of thought and expression. By the exercise of this affirmative responsibility, they can demonstrate that the answer to a "bad" book is a good one, the answer to a "bad" idea is a good one. The freedom to read is of little consequence when the reader cannot obtain matter fit for that reader's purpose. What is needed is not only the absence of restraint, but the positive provision of opportunity for the people to read the best that has been thought and said. Books are the major channel by which the intellectual inheritance is handed down, and the principal means of its testing and growth. The defense of the freedom to read requires of all publishers and librarians the utmost of their faculties, and deserves of all citizens the fullest of their support. We state these propositions neither lightly nor as easy generalizations. We here stake out a lofty claim for the value of the written word. We do so because we believe that it is possessed of enormous variety and usefulness, worthy of cherishing and keeping free. We realize that the application of these propositions may mean the dissemination of ideas and manners of expression that are repugnant to many persons. We do not state these propositions in the comfortable belief that what people read is unimportant. We believe rather that what people read is deeply important; that ideas can be dangerous; but that the suppression of ideas is fatal to a democratic society. Freedom itself is a dangerous way of life, but it is ours.
This statement was originally issued in May of 1953 by the Westchester Conference of the American Library Association and the American Book Publishers Council, which in 1970 consolidated with the American Educational Publishers Institute to become the Association of American Publishers.
Adopted June 25, 1953; revised January 28, 1972, January 16, 1991, July 12, 2000, by the ALA Council and the AAP Freedom to Read Committee.A Joint Statement by:
The Freedom to View
The FREEDOM TO VIEW, along with the freedom to speak, to hear, and to read, is protected by the First Amendment to the Constitution of the United States. In a free society, there is no place for censorship of any medium of expression. Therefore these principles are affirmed:
1. To provide the broadest access to film, video, and other audiovisual materials because they are a means for the communication of ideas. Liberty of circulation is essential to insure the constitutional guarantees of freedom of expression.
2. To protect the confidentiality of all individuals and institutions using film, video, and other audiovisual materials.
3. To provide film, video, and other audiovisual materials which represent a diversity of views and expression. Selection of a work does not constitute or imply agreement with or approval of the content.
4. To provide a diversity of viewpoints without the constraint of labeling or prejudging film, video, or other audiovisual materials on the basis of the moral, religious, or political beliefs of the producer or filmmaker or on the basis of controversial content.
5. To contest vigorously, by all lawful means, every encroachment upon the public's freedom to view. This statement was originally drafted by the Freedom to View Committee of the American Film and Video Association (formerly the Educational Film Library Association) and was adopted by the AFVA Board of Directors in February 1979. This statement was updated and approved by the AFVA Board of Directors in 1989.
Endorsed by the ALA Council January 10, 1990
52. SERVICES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF LIBRARIES
52.4 Confidentiality of Library Records
The ethical responsibilities of librarians, as well as statutes in most states and the District of Columbia, protect the privacy of library users. Confidentiality extends to "information sought or received, and materials consulted, borrowed, acquired," and includes database search records, reference interviews, circulation records, interlibrary loan records, and other personally identifiable uses of library materials, facilities, or services.
The American Library Association recognizes that law enforcement agencies and officers may occasionally believe that library records contain information which may be helpful to the investigation of criminal activity. If there is a reasonable basis to believe such records are necessary to the progress of an investigation or prosecution, the American judicial system provides the mechanism for seeking release of such confidential records: the issuance of a court order, following a showing of good cause based on specific facts, by a court of competent jurisdiction.The American Library Association strongly recommends that the responsible officers of each library, cooperative system, and consortium in the United States:
1) Formally adopt a policy which specifically recognizes its circulation records and other records identifying the names of library users with specific materials to be confidential.2) Advise all librarians and library employees that such records shall not be made available to any agency of state, federal, or local government except pursuant to such process, order, or subpoena as may be authorized under the authority of, and pursuant to, federal, state, or local law relating to civil, criminal, or administrative discovery procedures or legislative investigatory power.
3) Resist the issuance or enforcement of any such process, order, or subpoena until such time as a proper showing of good cause has been made in a court of competent jurisdiction.
An Interpretation of the Library Bill of Rights
The American Library Association declares as a matter of firm principle that it is the responsibility of every library to have a clearly defined materials selection policy in written form which reflects the Library Bill of Rights, and which is approved by the appropriate governing authority. Challenged materials which meet the criteria for selection in the materials selection policy of the library should not be removed under any legal or extra-legal pressure. The Library Bill of Rights states in Article I that "Materials should not be excluded because of the origin, background, or views of those contributing to their creation," and in Article II, that "Materials should not be proscribed or removed because of partisan or doctrinal disapproval." Freedom of expression is protected by the Constitution of the United States, but constitutionally protected expression is often separated from unprotected expression only by a dim and uncertain line. The Constitution requires a procedure designed to focus searchingly on challenged expression before it can be suppressed. An adversary hearing is a part of this procedure. Therefore, any attempt, be it legal or extra-legal, to regulate or suppress materials in libraries must be closely scrutinized to the end that protected expression is not abridged.
Adopted June 25, 1971; amended July 1, 1981; amended January 10, 1990, by the ALA Council.
ARIZONA REVISED STATUTES 5/02